Open-air (plein-air) landscape Emergence of indigenous Impressionism

In Tervuren and elsewhere, Boulenger painted directly from nature; he became the central figure of a small colony of artists. He himself launched the designation “Tervuren School” at the salon of 1866, a reference to the Barbizon School, which had profoundly influenced him and his fellow artists. His handling of paint was free and tempestuous, giving powerful expression to his own tormented personality. He influenced a whole generation of artists, bringing into being an indigenous Impressionism. Impressions of woodland, city, and sea, sometimes in bad weather conditions, were painted on canvas in a direct, free style, with a sensitive use of colour. The free, at times uncontrolled brush and palette technique adopted by Vogels, as well as his schematic and exuberant treatment of his subject matter, influenced Ensor.